Elements of Drama

Drama is the portrayal of emotions and expressions of a story. Theatrical representation of drama involves the usage of many things and the involvement of many activities. The necessary components common to literally every play or drama are known as elements of drama.

Components like theme, plot, characters, dialog, music, visual element, dramatic conventions and symbols are the elements of drama. Let’s take a detailed look into them.

Theme:  The general idea of the play is known as the theme of a play. It usually comes to be known by the end of the play or through dialogues or the title. For example, a play might have “teen pregnancy” as its theme whereas another can have “death”.

Plot: Plot refers to the occurrence of events in a play. The way a story reveals itself plays an important role in the success of a drama. It need not have a linear structure, but it needs to create a thrill or suspense in such a way that the audience could feel the raw emotions in an intense way.

Characters:  Behind every drama that came to be remembered in the hearts of people forever are strong individual personalities of the spirits projected. Characters are very important to bring the story to life as they are the biotic elements of the story.

Dialog: Dialogue is the actual content of the drama. It should necessarily be explicit to leave a lasting impact on the audience. It is the medium through which the story is made known to the audience. The dialogue delivery of the actors is a major aspect of the success of the drama.

Music: This is the element that is responsible for providing the drama a medium to flow with; it adds a melody to the composition and is a major component of Operas. It is quiet essential to have a quality music composition or orchestra. Lyricists and music composers work together to produce good songs. Musical effects are also important for scene transition and change of moods.

Visual Elements: As the word suggests, the elements visible are visuals. The aforementioned form the audio element whereas the costumes, actors, scene, backgrounds form the visual elements. The special effects, lightning etc, deepen the appeal making the drama worthy of praise.

Dramatic conventions: These are simply the special effects adding on to visual appeal. Over the years, effects like slow motion, freeze frame, audience addressing, showing multiple scenes at one time, etc have come to be known likeable by the audience.

Symbols: Symbols are the markers of scenes or effects used to strengthen the velocity of feelings. Props, gestures, lightning, setting, etc are symbols. Simple finger on your lip gestures are also symbols.

All these elements when combined in perfect proportions produce a magnificent drama enjoyed by the people. The direction of a play involves the perfection of every element.

Apart from all this a hardworking, passionate crew and a dynamic audience plays a very important role in leading the drama to the top.

Drama and its types

What is drama?

Drama is a very fascinating and majestic act captivating the audience in the fiction being represented. It is derived from a Greek word meaning “action”. It is generally enacted by professional theater artists. It is symbolized using two masks, namely Thalia (the happy face) and Melpomene (the weeping face), Greek Muses.

Its origin lies in the historical Greece and Athens. Roman drama followed Athenian drama on the path of fame along with Medieval, Elizabethan and Jacobean, modern and postmodern drama. India, China and Japan never lagged and produced their own versions of folk tales in the form of drama.

Hereby we are going to explore the different types of drama defined by professionals and the forms of drama evaqluated over the years.

What are the components of drama?

There are a few aspects common to every drama and they are known as the components of a drama. The components of drama are; theme, plot, audio-visual effects and music.

What are the forms of drama?

The forms of drama are as follows:

Opera: This versatile form arose during the Renaissance period. It is a combination of music and drama where the actors display exceptional acting and singing skills.

Pantomime: This kind of drama has fold tales as their base. Presented in the form of masque presentation, they generally portray the victory of good over evil. These have general focus on moral values and are appealing.

Creative Drama: This is the latest version of drama used in educational institutions have children as the means of expression. It has its roots in the United States and is known to be founded by Winfred Ward.

What are the types of drama?

Based on rudiments and the social thinking the following are the types of drama:

Musical: It is a sensuous type of drama also known as opera. Music, singing and dancing play an important role here. The story flows along with melodious tuning provided by the onstage orchestra.

Comedy: This real life based drama is known to be humorous. The story depicts some funny incidences or anecdotes and can be coarse and sarcastic too. One needs explicit talent to write comedy plots as to provoke laughter is a gift of god.

Farce: It is said to be a subgroup of the comedy. But it is not as popular as comedy as it involves exaggerated characters and plots that are too imaginative or rather unimaginative. This can sometimes be annoyingly too much for the audience to bear.

Tragedy: Depletion of human race, decline of a dynasty, war losses, betrayals, harm to morals, etc are generally topics around which a tragedy revolves. It is a touchy display of emotions that can move the audience provided it is plotted properly.

Melodrama: Melodrama tries to appeal its audience by the amplification of emotions. It can engross the audience completely if portrayed properly, but it can make it a flop show if it generates an aura of monotony.

Fantasy: It is a work of fiction where the boundaries created by the reality are crossed. Super heroes are a significant part of it. They possess powers that are fantastic and are generally appealing to the children. The modern technological advancements have intensified the effects created, adding an element of originality.

The above mentioned types are the major forms and types of drama. As we know, drama is a form of art that never does with lack of creativity. New genres of drama are sighted, but the majors are aforementioned. The advancements in the field of technology do provide competition to drama shown in theaters using live actors, but the craze is still there among the masses to view it!

Effective Teaching – Exploring Teaching Methods and Techniques

A teacher is said to have the most important job in the society; the job to shape and mold the future of the society – the children! Therefore, teachers need to focus on their job and turn up with best results.

Educating the children isn’t just about dumping loads of knowledge on them and pressurizing them to memorize the data but it is about actually teaching the children new stuff and making them learn the value of the material being taught to them. The children need to develop an understanding of the subject. And teachers are their guides on this track of life.

For this, there are many effective techniques and methods evaluated over the years. We’ll discuss the specific teaching methods here in this article.

Questioning: Asking questions and testing is undoubtedly the most effective and common way of teaching today. It enables the teacher to assess how much knowledge a student actually has about the subject and how much more needs t be imparted. When questions are asked related to everyday life, it makes the topic much more interesting. It is also responsible for making the class, somewhere or the other, more competitive in nature.

For example, if you’re teaching kids about polynomials, you can start by asking them how much they actually know about algebra or what are algebraic expressions.

Here, even the child is allowed to ask questions to the teacher. This lets the teacher know about the way of thinking of the student and the state of openness of his mind.

Explaining: Sometimes teachers go by introducing the topic and giving a proper summary on it. They share experiences and explain various factors of day to day life in a conversation form. If you are opting for this method, you need to make notes and make sure that your matter is related only to that particular age group. This method demands you to provide the class with examples on every subject or topic you discuss. It is a lively and traditional way of teaching.

For example, when teaching about various life processes, you can start by telling them what life processes are and then giving a short insight on how each one of them individually help the body function.

Modeling: Observing, retaining and replicating – these are the basis of this technique known as modeling or reinforced behavior. As we all know, visuals enable the human brain to retain information much more effectively and for a longer period of time, this proves to be an effective method. Here, various kinds of visuals and ‘models’ are used to demonstrate subjects and differences. It is generally accompanied by explanation.

For instance, if you are explaining closed and open circuit, you can ask the students to make a circuit model complete with a switch and ask them to observe how it works when the path is broken or complete.

It is also observed that students when taught using globes grasp much more than when taught using maps. A model of the earth helps students relate to real life positions and situation much better.

This is an especially effective medium in consideration to children as it prevents the things from going too dry.Selecting the right direction

Demonstrating: Demonstrating the subject is a step-by-step tutorial and very effective in clearing the concepts of the students. It develops an understanding of the process that is being taught right from the beginning till the end. Aids like practical equipments are a must for this technique. This method is not as effective for small children as it requires them to do first hand experimentation which might be difficult for them. But it is very valuable when dealing with older kids. Smart classes and computerized versions of teaching come under this.

Collaborating: “Collaborating” in modern world refers to team work. Dividing students into teams and giving instructions is beneficial in numerous ways. It makes the students aware of a sense of responsibility and team work. This direct instruction technique gives the students a stage to display their leadership qualities and their mental development level. They strive and come out with information helpful to obtain results. It is also a practice for dealing real life situations and overcoming petty distress. This technique spurts essential maturity development of the brain.

Reviewing: Reviewing or revising the material over and over with the class is always a good idea. This can be done in many ways. You can simply rehearse the material with the class. This can help you to tech forgotten material to the class and also clear doubts within the students.

You can elaborate topics while you are at it. For instance, you can ask the student to increase an answer of 20 words to that of 70 words by putting in their understanding and knowledge. This way you’ll get to know what exactly the child has grasped and how exactly he thinks about the phenomenon. You can even ask the students to do small projects on the things taught; like they could prepare charts, etc. Then it can even be used to ask children to merge previously learned information with the latest one and form suppositions. These pre – suppositions may or may not be correct, it’s your duty to correct them.

There are many more new techniques that have taken the place of old world, traditional ways. Role-play, field trips, computers, brainstorming, case studies are slowly emerging too. They are simple to follow and provide efficient results.

No matter what your technique is, remember writing lesson plans and preparing yourself before facing the children. While opting for a teaching method, keep in mind the age group you are dealing with and the topic.

All in all, don’t forget to be comfortable yourself with the topic. Provide the class with a light environment that makes teaching fun and fruitful for both, you and the students. Let the children express their own views. Encourage them to come up with doubts.

And always, always believe in them and I’m sure you’ll excel in your task of educating the children.

Getting your General Education Development Certificate (GED)

GED is a test that results in you acquiring a General Education Development certification. This is a certificate for those who were unable to complete their high school due to some reason but still want to pursue their higher studies. This certification is equal to a high school certificate in value.Retention_Programs_Improve_Graduation_Rates-hero

A high school certificate is a necessity to get a basic job or admission in a college. If you have a specific purpose for getting this certification, make sure the college or company in your mind accepts this in place of a high school certificate. Or else, all your hard work would be down the drain.

To be frank, it is not a very easy task to acquire this certificate. But if you really have the spirit and are willing to do it then you can and will be able to get it! Now about how to get your GED, we’ll have a look into the matter.

Eligibility: if you are a high school dropout you can apply for it. In addition, you have age bars too. But they differ according to the state rules. Some states have it as 18 whereas some as 16, you can inquire about it at the Department of Education of your state.

Preparation: Firstly you need to know what to expect. You are assessed on five main subjects. They are:

  1. Language Arts (Writing): This comprises two parts; English Language and essay writing.
  2. Language Arts (Reading): This comprises five parts; poetry, drama, fiction, non-fiction and work place documents.
  3. Social Science: This consist history, geography, civics and economics.
  4. Science: Physical science, life science and earth and space science are included under this.
  5. Mathematics: here you have to be ready with numeric operations, geometry, statistics and data analysis, and algebra.

There are numerous institutions that provide preparatory classes for GED. Even online courses are available for the benefit of those unable to find proper classes in their vicinity. But while filling up be sure to check if the institution is accredited. There are as many bogus classes out there as there are original. You can even opt for self studies but one has to be really determined before taking up that decision. It is hard to be followed later on. So it is advisable that you take up courses.

No matter what means of preparation, remember to solve ample of sample papers before going in for the real thing. Be thorough with question papers so as to you know what to expect actually!

Marking scheme

Each section contains 800 marks. You must get a minimum f 450 marks in each subject to clear. An average score in GED is 500 points in each subject…that’s a total of 2500 points; before going in for that mindset; find out the minimum requirements of marks in the firm or college you are planning to apply later on.


Let me state here clearly: GED tests are not taken online. You have to go in person and give the test. If you find sites acclaiming they provide online GED facilities, their authenticity is questionable. The diploma provided can very well be bogus. So before you sit to fill the entry form for a centre or website, be sure to go through their legitimacy.


It totally depends on your centre. Some charge no fees at all whereas some charge from USD 50 TO USD 100. These rates are exclusive of the charges incurred during preparations.

It takes you at least six months of preparation. The test is of seven hours and five minutes, all the five subjects included. Some centers hold it in one go whereas some conduct it in several sittings. The arrival of results and the certificate may take a few weeks.

You should keep in mind that you’ll be able to pass only if you yourself have the fortitude and are focused. It is not an easy task. A census proves that only 30% students have been able to clear it in the first attempt.

Just relax, free your mind, strengthen your will and surge in to start preparing. Your career lies in your hands. Go for it and grab your future!

All the best!

Perfect décor for your perfect day – Graduation Party Décor ideas!

Graduation is the time of the life when we celebrate accomplishment. It is a special time in one’s life and one expects it to be the best! Creativity is a must and highly appreciated by youngsters and a will to stand out is always seen amongst the graduates. Celebration is a must! And you’re ready to throw a party? Cool…let’s check out on the graduation party decoration ideas.

To start with the décor, firstly, you’ll have to decide on the place/venue. Depending on the venue of the place, the preceding steps could be taken. For example, if the place is one with a dark hue around it, with walls colored on the darker side, the décor should be accordingly set with dim lights and an elegant touch. On the other hand, if the venue is a garden or an open field, bright balloons or streamers should be preferred.

If it’s a hot day of the year, you can go in for a water balloon throw in the garden. It’ll end up in needing little decoration.

Planning your party based on a theme is a wonderful scheme. Though the base will be graduation, you can go in for more detailed themes like the school color or the motto. It will individualize your party, throwing in more of warmth and fun.

If you are having the party indoors, you could go in for customized streamers. Though it’d take a bit of time, it’d be cool. Just blow up the pictures of your classmates from the yearbook and stick them on silver stars cut out of cardboard. Join them to make a beautiful streamer that would be perfect for the event! You can even have balloons all over the place with quotes written over. Have charts put up with quotes or memories of your school.

Make play up posters. Go in for funny posters which include your batch mates. Firstly get the individual pictures of all your classmates. Then make wanted or congratulating posters out of them. Like if someone’s known for being late to places you can write on the poster, “Wanted…for always being the last one arrive.” Or if someone’s known for cooking bad you can write, “Congratulations…for sticking to your style of cooking Mars recopies.” You can put them up on the walls all over the room. Make sure that your guests are not offended by the tags given to them, or else it could turn out real bitter.

Don’t forget the dance floor. While decorating, be sure to leave a portion of the room empty for dancing and setting up a DJ there. It keeps the party spirit up! Throw in couches and chairs around the room to sit on and organize games that go on throughout the party. Here’s a suggested game: when a guest enters you can pin a label with a teachers name behind him. The guest is allowed to ask yes or no questions to others throughout the party and guess the name by the end.

While you are at it, also keep provisions for recording the party and having snaps clicked. One of the camera creeps of your group can be given the duty or if funds allow, you can even hire a professional.

Add few touches of your own here and there to give it your color. Keep in mind the general likes and dislikes of your classmates that you know about.

In the end, the place gains its real beauty when smiling faces ready to take flight in the outer world occupy it and have fun!



A perfect click of pollution – ooops – crackers!

On the 11th of November 2015, when the whole of the nation celebrated the festival of Diwali, when the dark sky was lit by fireworks, when the air smelled of explosives, when every house was glowing with hundreds of earthen lamps, when the whole nation was on a holiday – a small little boy sat helpless in the dark corner of a street, wanting to cry but remembering the words of her late mum and holding back. She had said, “Diwali is a festival of lights and joy, never let your misfortune dishearten you on this day. Celebrate it with the pomp it deserves!”

At the age of twelve, he was earning enough to keep himself alive. He worked for a burly man who had a musty factory. Along with a handful of others, he used to make crackers. He was grateful to god for this little job. He was grateful that he was alive.

With his head bent, his eyes lifeless, his posture still, he fought back the urge to cry out loud. The constant noise of crackers filled the air and the feeling of loss filled his heart.

The morning was still fresh in his mind – as fresh as it could be! He had been doing his job efficiently – filling “barood” in the small paper packs. Waiting eagerly for the two dry chappatis his master would soon provide, he quickened his pace. There was an improvement today. He had made 68 packets in one hour, yesterday he had made only 54. His mother would be proud of him, he thought. And he was confident that he’d earn enough to buy a pack of sweets for his mother this Diwali. He’d make it the most memorable one for her! With a grin on his face, he worked efficiently. The little face of his darling mother vivid in his mind, he kept filling and tieing the packets.

“2 minutes to 12!” yelled an older guy in the room. The boy’s face lightened! 2 minutes before he could meet his mother for lunch in the other building. He was sure her mother must be very tired today as the demand for crackers was maximum today and she did the sealing. He’d give her one of his chappatis, yes!

And then…all he remembered was a loud bang and a blinding flash in the window behind. They said it was an accident. A cracker had accidently burst, lighting the others. The building had collapsed too. All the workers had died. It was destiny they said.

The money he had earned still burnt his shirt pocket. The rolled chappatis were still kept in his torn pant as he thought of his mother. She was gone now….forever. There wasn’t a tored soul to offer a chappati to now. There was no one to buy sweets for now. This Diwali was the most memorable one …but not for his mother, rather for him!

His master said such accidents were common in this business, the boy shan’t be disheartened. He should forget the incidence.

But was it so easy?

Hello everybody!

I won’t say that the account above was completely fictional. Yes its raw and not really a polished piece – but it is original (by me!)

On the 11th of this month was DIWALI. A festival of lights. The festival is marked by the return of Lord Ram to his hometown after defeating Ravana and rescuing Godess Sita. The festival is celebrated by lighting earthen pots…and by bursting crackers. I can’t vouch for an account of crackers in the vedas…

Yes they cause pollution and make the birds completely restless. The animals become terrified by the noise. And they have no one to turn to! Yet humans have fun!pol1

So, Diwali, the biggest festival for Hindus was a good one this year (exept the loss of a few unimportant lives here and there)!
Wishing you all a safe and prosperous diwali (belated)!

Stay safe! Stay happy!

Types of sidings

Siding is a decorous way of presenting your home and making it attractive and appealing. It is becoming increasingly popular amongst home owners. There is a variety of types of sidings to choose from. Some of the common and popular ones are discussed here for you to refer to.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding is basically a PVC or polyvinyl product. Recently, it is found to be the most popular siding used by individual families, previously it was despised, though. Due to its low resistance it was not preferred. But due to its technical advancement, the last decade has seen a refined product. This type of siding imitates wood, slate, stone and brick. It is now an improved and weather improvised product.

It is durable, easily accessible and quite cheap compared to other sidings. Most of the brands also give a lifetime warranty. It is also eco-friendly as it is usually produced through re-cycling processes. But it has its disadvantages too like it cannot be painted and the styles available are not many in number. It is also flammable and release toxins when burned.  To get it clean, you need to wash it once a year with soap and water; high-pressure washing is discouraged, though.
Insulated Siding

Insulated siding is a branch of vinyl siding itself with the addition of insulation. The difference is just that the insulation is in conjunction with the inside of the siding. There is another variation of this found in which the insulation are left unbounded. The foam core insulation is cut to be the size of the siding. The most common insulating material used in Expanded polystyrene (EPS).
Insulated sliding is known significantly for its capability to counteract the thermal bridging effect in homes. On one hand insulates siding is known for its ability to flatter the conventional siding, making it effective on irregular walls, for reducing noise and for reducing the amount of heat lost or gained from the house, on the other, its costs are considered to be higher than vinyl sidings. The cleansing method is same as the vinyl side and is totally a “green” product.

Fiber Cement Siding

Fiber cement siding, made out of wood fibers and sand-cement mixture, is thicker compared to vinyl, having an ability to withstand extreme weather conditions. It is very rigid and doesn’t go through expansion and contraction at the same rate, unlike wood and vinyl. Most fiber brands can be repainted, allowing amendments to the house easy in future.
These are very durable, excel in quality, have long warranties and are attractive. It is also termite repellent, is water proof, incombustible, holds paint well and has a variety of selections. Though the installation is complicated and quite costly, it is maintenance free if repairs are made after every 15 to 20 years. It contains 10-20 percent recycled materials.

Engineered Wood Siding

This is the latest style of siding produced by combining wooden leftovers like saw dust and wood shavings with bonding agents. This leads to a hybrid variety containing the aesthetic features of wood but much stronger in resistance.
This type of wood can be factory painted and needs the painting every 5 to 10 years. Developers hope to see this product rising among consumers in the coming years.
This is light, easy to install and more resistant due to infused resins. Though this product can create moisture related problems if not installed properly, it is made out of products like recycled wood. The cleaning of it involves painting for weatherproofing, pre treatment with bleach or vinegar and washing with mild detergent and sand.

Before taking your final decision, reader are advised to weigh all the options and choose according to their needs.

Types of Vinyl Sidings

Weatherproofing of homes using wooden, aluminum and fiber sidings was common. But looking into the advantages of vinyl sidings, it is given more preference nowadays. Vinyl sliding basically are of PVC or polyvinyl and are used for the exterior of a house. It is not only used for its ulterior weatherproofing but also for its decorous wood clapboard look. The main reasons why today’s builders use vinyl sidings instead of three inch thick aluminum or wooden ones is its cost-effectiveness, flexibility, strength, trouble-free installation, light credence, and numerous choice in colors. There are a number of types of vinyl sidings available in the market.

Board and Batten

Apart from being highly versatile, this type of siding imitates wood, lending the house a rustic-effect. This type of siding is alternated with narrow cedar between its wood. The variations available are D4, D5 (most common) and Dutch lap (looks like traditional Dutch wood laps). If you are in for a quaint look, then this is the one for you!


This delivers a log cabin feel minus the problem of the logs settling in. Though made of real wood, it is as easy to install as any other type. It is also the most economical of all the types.


Providing a vivid range of colors and textures, this type of vinyl can change the look of your house completely. It possesses properties like fire retardation and insect repellent.


This type can be painted according to the owner’s free will. The paint may not last as long as the one which the manufacturer applies and it also costs higher than getting it painted by the maker himself.

Solid Core

This kind of siding comprises a solid foam core. It lies flat on the wall, fitting smoothly. If you are aiming for an impact resistant type of vinyl siding, this is the one for you!

Shake and Shingle

This provides the house with a unique, singular use. It usually is aided by other siding materials.


Known for its heat reflecting abilities, it is maintenance free and much more durable than regular paint. Protecting the exterior of the house from extreme temperatures, it also saves energy bills. Eco-friendly in nature, it doesn’t radiate harmful chemical compounds, unlike the other types.

Marking the cost efficiency and durability, vinyl siding no doubt is the best choice. Hope the above giving variations are helpful to you!

Home Improvement – Understanding Weatherizing Home For Winter

With much of the world experiencing severe winters with snow falls, preparing yourself and your abode for the harsh climate is a necessary step. If you are fresh to this system of winterizing your home, don’t worry, I’ll help you with your dilemma.

Now as to when’s the best time to start, you must have come across the proverb by John F. Kennedy, “The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining.” So you should prepare well before the winter months. Summer, rather autumn is the best time to initialize your projects.

Winter proofing your home involves making your domicile considerably safe from the harsh elements of the dry season and helps it radiate more of heat to enable your living to be more comfortable.

Weatherizing home for winters involve many factors to be taken into consideration. Been living in the apartments all your life and new to house ownership? Here is a step by step guide to the winterization process.

A Roof saved is a Life saved!

Roof, being the most important and exposed part of your residence needs to be given the first preference. Take time to go through the obvious problems of the roof. Fix all the leaking and gutters. Make sure the sidings are firmly attached. Make sure to get in a skilled roofing man to look into the matter. If you own a chimney, get it cleaned too to make it the most efficient during the winter months.

Household repairs kept at hold!

Get on and going with all the repair projects you had pending since a while. Get all your windows and doors checked and repaired. Try sealing the concrete in your basement. In addition to door and window cover u and gaps, use door sweeps too. It keeps the cold air out effectively. Do all this much before the last minute to be on the safer side.

Sweep your stuff indoors!

It is quite harmful for your belongings if they are left out in the winter months. Stuff including wooden and plastic furniture should be hauled safely indoors. This would save a lot of your handiwork in the summer months, oiling and leveling them.

Pull your sleeves up for some Plumbing!

Drain the outdoor valves to prevent freezing and shield the pipelines that could freeze using insulation because trust me, it’s really shoddy when they burst. Remove all the exterior water tubes, turning off the main supply. You should also better get an interior shut off built.

Clear the field!

Clear off the big branches and plant life that could later fall in on your roof, causing heavy damage. Trim the trees to protect them from falling or getting damaged during heavy snowfall.

Stock up your Shelves!

Buy and keep enough of salt and thawers well in advance so you don’t have to face an emergency during the dry spell. Remember, that will be the time when most of the town/city will rush to stores and markets to acquire them, causing a shortage of the stuff. Also stock up on your food supplies, forecasting godforsaken storms and disastrous conditions. Check up on all your tools and appliances. Right from your shovels, tank heaters and furnaces to your cars should be thoroughly checked before you hit the bad weather.

Winter proofing your home is just a matter of few precautions here and there but it is a very necessary task keeping in mind the safety of all realms.

So read thoroughly and have a safe winter!