The past few days have been hard for a number of people down here. A charming young boy committing suicide ain’t no joke! But in the light of this incident, I learnt a lot. While doing my research and interacting with people real time, I gotta know that reality and truth isn’t always appreciated.

Anyway, keeping all that aside, I’ve got a request to all those out there reading this and trying to get to me indirectly : If you guys have got the guts, speak to me personally instead of taking the aid of people who know me! Thank you!

Now, for those who aren’t aware of my last post : A boy ‘A’ (for discretion),16, committed suicide on 8th of March without stating his reason and now the whole city thinks the education system, teachers and schools are the villains.

To those who think the above statement is true and stuff : I’d like to point out that in the past week THREE students committed suicide in our state. Two of them left notes suggesting they didn’t want to fail in their examinations. They belonged to the Hoshangabad and Sagar district respectively. But A never wrote anything on these lines in his note!

Then we come to a global level. In the past few days 24 students committed suicide (thanks Tejaswi for this piece of information). Not all of them had the same physics teacher who asked them to take tuitions.

But yet, since we probably don’t like the physics teacher we should definitely blame it on him. Just because he’s troubled us a lot by taunting us in class and stuff we MUST blame him and make it hard for him. Since we weren’t allowed to attend the annual sports day because we try to bomb the school, we should blame it on the school. Just because we aren’t selected in the annual torch light display team, we should blame it on the school. Just because we have nothing to do we should blame the education system. Right?

This is a call to those who think they know enough to start banging down doors of the temple of education demanding justice. How are you so sure that the claims made are true? In the last post somewhere I mentioned the possibility of the lad being a drug addict. I mentioned the POSSIBILITY  and those people had ants in their pants, imagine what should be the reaction of the school when the teacher is being ALLEGED of being guilty.

I don’t overrule the possibility of the teacher pressurising the student, but do you think that the boy would commit suicide just before the exam then?

And how would you explain the other kids who killed themselves?

This suicidal apocalypse has a root that must be dug into. The teachers were harsher in the 80’s still our parents respected them. Then why don’t we do so now?

It is true that exposed to the dejection caused by failure doesn’t come to a student before the 10th grade in the current pattern of education by CBSE and that is a good reason why students are committing suicide, but let’s question why in the first place did this system come into force? It was because students of middle school were committing suicide back then!

So why were THEY (the middle school kids) giving up their life? Because the parents were pressurizing them to get good grades! Ha! So it zeros up on the parents now, eh?

Now let’s relate this to the case of A. He never wanted to opt for a science stream. His parents forced him. Parents pressurized him equally. So, if the school WAS pressuring (the physics teacher to be precise) and he’s being held responsible, so the parents should be too!

Anyway, I won’t take A into consideration now as people are getting personal. But I’d like to clarify that in no way am I indifferent to his death. I lament it as much as you do. But that doesn’t mean I start burning effigies and creating unnecessary nuisance!

We are all civilised humans. We need to use our brains instead of our weapons. Rather we must  make our brains the best weapon!

And then, guys (the one’s who say the physics teacher is the only one who’s guilty), you can never corner him legally as poor A is dead and can’t testify. But do you know what you CAN do? Stop making coaching classes your second homes. You guys are promoting business by going to coaching classes. In my opinion, we must STOP taking coaching until we really need it. And even if we DO need it we should stay back and bug our own school teachers to teach us more of the subjects and clear the doubts. Coaching classes are a root to many issues.

Yes I too go to coaching classes and I won’t deny that…I’ll definitely justify myself! But we’ll get to that next time.

Stay smiling, stay civilized! Stay blessed!

Once again, Rest in peace A, you were loved and will be remembered.

PS: Sorry I never knew what to use as the title so I used this.

Love humanity !


Power Lunch Etiquettes – Choosing the Right Restaurant for Business Lunch

Power lunches are one of the best ways to impress your business acquaintances into finalizing a deal. But at the same time, choosing the right restaurant which will appeal to your dealing acquaintance is a hard job. Proper power lunch etiquettes are necessary here! There are quite a number of aspects we’ve got to pay attention to before zeroing in on one restaurant or food joint.

You have to find a restaurant that will tick off all your needs and will be especially pleasing to your client because in the end your deal being successful rests, to a certain extent, on the lunch date. How pleasing you turn out be, decides your long term relations with the person.

Food Restrictions and Preferences

You should, well in advance, inquire about the person’s dietary needs and choices. If the person is a vegetarian, taking him to an American steak centre wouldn’t turn out to be fruitful in the least. Or if the person is allergic to spices, taking him to a Thai cuisine restaurant would certainly not be recommended. A situation may arise where you don’t know what your associate likes. In those cases, you should either run your guest with two to three choices and ask her which one he/she likes, or you should take him/her to a place where they provide you with a number of cuisines. This will prevent unintended humiliation.


Check on the service provided by the place you’ve decided on. Good food is a must but good service is equally important. If the service irritates the guest, your ideas of buttering him/her up would whoosh down the drain. There are restaurants which are frequented by business diners and the waiters there are well aware of when to leave the table for uninterrupted discussion and when to check on them. You can call and check if the place holds frequent business parties. If it is a known joint, you can always check the net for reviews.


It is a good idea to find out the dinning history of your guest. If the person has already been twice to the same place in recent past, it certainly won’t be as enjoyable for him/her the third time. On the other hand, a new food place would certainly lighten his spirit.

Also, it’s always a good idea to choose a local hot spot. Though a 5 star hotel mostly does the trick, there’s no compulsion you’ve got to choose that. You can very well go in for a local famous place which will acquaint your guest with the flavors of your town. If the guest is a foreigner, take him to a national place of fame, i.e., to a place where cultural specialties are served.


Last but not the least; you have to watch out for the atmosphere of the place. If you are taking your client to a usual hang out spot for teenagers, he/ she may not exactly be appreciative of your choice. The ambience provided should be powerful and impressive. A professional setting and an elite atmosphere can play an important role in deciding your business success. A quite place with subtle frill is always a top choice!

Now we come to some preferred places by food critics and bloggers in major entrepreneur cities.

New York: In this business centric city you can always opt for Cipriani Wall Street, Gotham Bar and Grill or Balthazar. You can also check out The Grill Room at the Four Seasons Restaurant.

Los Angeles: Moving on to this high tech city of wonders, you can see Spago, Pizzeria Mozza, The Grill on the Alley, or Craft Los Angeles.

Chicago: Here, you can go in for Blackbird, Keefer’s, and Sepia. Prime Steak & Stone Crab and Joe’s Seafood is also a good choice!

London: Hardwood Arms, The Hawksmoor, The Ledbury, or Corrigan’s Mayfair are one of the hits!

If you are dealing with a vegetarian, the extra pointer may help that ethnic places like Chinese, Italian and Mexican eat outs are preferred.

Have an awesome day! Stay blessed! Happy blogging ! 😀

Business Letter Writing Etiquette – How To Write Effective Business Letters?

Even in this age of technology, where emails and messages are binging away, letters are the most effective mode of communication with people who are far off as this indicate the quality time you’ve spent in contacting a person, who in turns gets the sense of importance necessary to improve your impression. I f we pay attention to simple details and follow the business letter writing etiquette, it’ll surely reflect on our levels of success. Mastering the craft of writing effective business letters is just an article away…

Business letters are also known as formal letters. They are impersonal and require one to follow decorum by using formal language. Such letters include inquiry, ordering, reference, applications, proposals, etc. In these letters a formal tone should be adopted.

Parts of a Business letter


The date line can be written on the right or flush-left of the documentary. It includes the date, month and the year. It can be written in one of the following ways:

30 March 2014
March 30, 2014

But refrain from using abbreviations for the month or adding superscripts to the numerals like 30th.

Reference line

These are the special references to sources like files, account, orders, invoices, etc. They are sometimes centered but usually written below the dateline. If the letter extends over a page, all the succeeding pages should hold the reference line on top.

Special Notations

This is the notation also found on the face side of the envelope and state the privacy of the letter. It generally says “PERSONAL” if it’s intended for private matters or “CONFEDENTIAL” if it’s one for the company authorities. In the letter it should be written four to five lines below the dateline, and the inside address should be started after two lines of this notation.

Inside address of the Recipient

It should be at a minimum distance of eight lines from the dateline. It includes the following:

Addressee’s courtesy title and full name: Be careful to write prefixes such as “Dr.” if the person holds such a degree. If they don’t, you can go along with a general Mr. / Miss / Mrs. If you are unsure of the title, you can call in the firm to confirm it. If you’re not aware of the marital status of the woman, you can always write “Ms.” that is acceptable for both. If you’re not aware of the gender of the person, you can always drop the courtesy title and write “Dear” and this can also be followed in the salutation. Though awkward, this would prevent you from causing unintended offences.

Addressee’s business title, when required: This will depend on the purpose of your letter. If it is suitable, you can omit this line. However be careful to write it as:
Mr. John Smith
Alpha Company
and not as: President John Smith
Alpha Company.

Name of the business: You should write the name of the company as it is. Check their letter heads or websites and copy it exactly. If they write Ltd instead of Limited, write that. No questions asked just copy it off.

Full address: Write the full address of the firm where the letter is to be received. The street, name, building number, ZIP code should be included.


Usually it is a simple “Dear Mr. _____ / Ms. ______” It is a rule that you salute a person in the manner you address him in person. If you are on a first name terms with the person concerned, it’s well and good for you to use that, but if something else, then stick to that.

If you’re addressing it to a company or department instead, write “Dear Alpha Company” or “Dear Financial headquarters” or simply “Dear Financial Head”.


Keep it short, precise and to the point. Keep it to one page if possible. It can range from one paragraph to several more…maybe a few pages. But make sure to adopt a formal tone and make it as short as possible. In the bargain, don’t miss out on important points as it may leave a bad impression.


Even here, stay brief but friendly. If you are on close terms with the person you can send regard for family members but if not you can simply state “I am looking forward to talking to you” or “You can contact me on 9876543210 for further information or copies”. Finish your letter with a show of gratitude for attention but don’t thank them for something they have yet not accomplished.

A complimentary close is a must. Aligned flush-left, you can end like “Yours truly” or “Sincerely Yours”. If you’re on a first name basis with him or her, you can end like “Regards”. “Cordially” is also a very good choice.

Below that is placed the handwritten signature and the typed one. The typed signature would include your title (Ph.D. or Mr. or Ms.) and would also include your company name and your position. If the letter is presented by more than one person, everyone’s signature should be included.

Final Notations

If you are hiring a typist for the purpose of typing your letter, its initials are mentioned two lines below the signature block.

If you are enclosing attachments, it is mentioned here in the following way: “encl.” or “enc.”

If the number of enclosures is more than one, then write “Enclosure (2)” or “Enclosure (3)” bracketing the number of enclosures. If you are mailing something separately, mention it as in “Separate mailing: Annual Reports 2014”

Postscripts are undesirable as they mark your irresponsibility. It points out your poor presentation in leaving out information from the main body.

By following these guidelines, you can write a letter as artful as possible.  And if it’s your first letter, remember – First impression is the last impression.

Glam up your writing skills and make it to the top!






Drama activities

Drama is a tool to explore human nature, to experience feelings indiscriminately. It is present everywhere in the society. You see a child playing house with his friend, that’s drama, you see children imitating their idol, that’s drama, and you see a person mimicking others, that’s drama!

Along with being a stress buster, it is also a great developer of personality. It is seen when drama activities are included in school curriculum, a rapid growth focus, concentration, improvement of body language, exploration of talent, ability to interact and development of confidence is inevitable.

It is now a popular method of child development to include drama activities educational intuitions. An all around development is spurted through this. If you’re thinking of helping your child with drama too, then you’d definitely need to know the best activities. Here they are:

JAM (Just a minute)

Here, the children are given individual topics and are allowed to discuss on it for some time. Then they’ve got to speak for one minute on that topic without stuttering or stammering. Yes, this is a drama activity! And quite an effective one too! You can observe development of public speaking skills, clarity of speech, language improvisation, etc.

Role Playing

It is another one of the simple activities involving drama. This can be done individually, in pairs or groups. You can tell the student to think about a person, say the president, a celebrity or something, and then enact him in front of the class fully with dialogues and everything. This results in an overall development in the thinking capabilities and he gives importance to small things.


It refers to the dumb acting of the bodies. Youngsters just love using body movements and gestures to express feelings. It is a challenge for them. You can ask the children to act out a scene without speaking a word and the others would guess what it was about.

Story telling

As the name suggests, here the children is not just supposed to narrate the story but to tell it! The child needs to include gestures and expressions into him while staging the story. Children also love to enact stories and you can ask them to do that too. Here, enacting doesn’t mean fully with costumes and lightning but just enactment using their skills.

Passing the face

Heard of passing the parcel? Well it’s similar to that! Here, you’ve got to pass expressions! Yeah, you stand in a circle and then the first person makes a face – happy or sad – to his adjacent player. Then he will turn and make a new expression to the one adjacent to him. No one is allowed to copy an expression. This seriously needs a bit racking of the brains because frankly, how many expressions do you expect someone to have?

Drama is a sheer stress buster. And these simple activities involve no memorizing of lines, just a time full of joy! So let your inner artist wake and open yourselves up to the world of drama!

Elements of Drama

Drama is the portrayal of emotions and expressions of a story. Theatrical representation of drama involves the usage of many things and the involvement of many activities. The necessary components common to literally every play or drama are known as elements of drama.

Components like theme, plot, characters, dialog, music, visual element, dramatic conventions and symbols are the elements of drama. Let’s take a detailed look into them.

Theme:  The general idea of the play is known as the theme of a play. It usually comes to be known by the end of the play or through dialogues or the title. For example, a play might have “teen pregnancy” as its theme whereas another can have “death”.

Plot: Plot refers to the occurrence of events in a play. The way a story reveals itself plays an important role in the success of a drama. It need not have a linear structure, but it needs to create a thrill or suspense in such a way that the audience could feel the raw emotions in an intense way.

Characters:  Behind every drama that came to be remembered in the hearts of people forever are strong individual personalities of the spirits projected. Characters are very important to bring the story to life as they are the biotic elements of the story.

Dialog: Dialogue is the actual content of the drama. It should necessarily be explicit to leave a lasting impact on the audience. It is the medium through which the story is made known to the audience. The dialogue delivery of the actors is a major aspect of the success of the drama.

Music: This is the element that is responsible for providing the drama a medium to flow with; it adds a melody to the composition and is a major component of Operas. It is quiet essential to have a quality music composition or orchestra. Lyricists and music composers work together to produce good songs. Musical effects are also important for scene transition and change of moods.

Visual Elements: As the word suggests, the elements visible are visuals. The aforementioned form the audio element whereas the costumes, actors, scene, backgrounds form the visual elements. The special effects, lightning etc, deepen the appeal making the drama worthy of praise.

Dramatic conventions: These are simply the special effects adding on to visual appeal. Over the years, effects like slow motion, freeze frame, audience addressing, showing multiple scenes at one time, etc have come to be known likeable by the audience.

Symbols: Symbols are the markers of scenes or effects used to strengthen the velocity of feelings. Props, gestures, lightning, setting, etc are symbols. Simple finger on your lip gestures are also symbols.

All these elements when combined in perfect proportions produce a magnificent drama enjoyed by the people. The direction of a play involves the perfection of every element.

Apart from all this a hardworking, passionate crew and a dynamic audience plays a very important role in leading the drama to the top.

Drama and its types

What is drama?

Drama is a very fascinating and majestic act captivating the audience in the fiction being represented. It is derived from a Greek word meaning “action”. It is generally enacted by professional theater artists. It is symbolized using two masks, namely Thalia (the happy face) and Melpomene (the weeping face), Greek Muses.

Its origin lies in the historical Greece and Athens. Roman drama followed Athenian drama on the path of fame along with Medieval, Elizabethan and Jacobean, modern and postmodern drama. India, China and Japan never lagged and produced their own versions of folk tales in the form of drama.

Hereby we are going to explore the different types of drama defined by professionals and the forms of drama evaqluated over the years.

What are the components of drama?

There are a few aspects common to every drama and they are known as the components of a drama. The components of drama are; theme, plot, audio-visual effects and music.

What are the forms of drama?

The forms of drama are as follows:

Opera: This versatile form arose during the Renaissance period. It is a combination of music and drama where the actors display exceptional acting and singing skills.

Pantomime: This kind of drama has fold tales as their base. Presented in the form of masque presentation, they generally portray the victory of good over evil. These have general focus on moral values and are appealing.

Creative Drama: This is the latest version of drama used in educational institutions have children as the means of expression. It has its roots in the United States and is known to be founded by Winfred Ward.

What are the types of drama?

Based on rudiments and the social thinking the following are the types of drama:

Musical: It is a sensuous type of drama also known as opera. Music, singing and dancing play an important role here. The story flows along with melodious tuning provided by the onstage orchestra.

Comedy: This real life based drama is known to be humorous. The story depicts some funny incidences or anecdotes and can be coarse and sarcastic too. One needs explicit talent to write comedy plots as to provoke laughter is a gift of god.

Farce: It is said to be a subgroup of the comedy. But it is not as popular as comedy as it involves exaggerated characters and plots that are too imaginative or rather unimaginative. This can sometimes be annoyingly too much for the audience to bear.

Tragedy: Depletion of human race, decline of a dynasty, war losses, betrayals, harm to morals, etc are generally topics around which a tragedy revolves. It is a touchy display of emotions that can move the audience provided it is plotted properly.

Melodrama: Melodrama tries to appeal its audience by the amplification of emotions. It can engross the audience completely if portrayed properly, but it can make it a flop show if it generates an aura of monotony.

Fantasy: It is a work of fiction where the boundaries created by the reality are crossed. Super heroes are a significant part of it. They possess powers that are fantastic and are generally appealing to the children. The modern technological advancements have intensified the effects created, adding an element of originality.

The above mentioned types are the major forms and types of drama. As we know, drama is a form of art that never does with lack of creativity. New genres of drama are sighted, but the majors are aforementioned. The advancements in the field of technology do provide competition to drama shown in theaters using live actors, but the craze is still there among the masses to view it!

Effective Teaching – Exploring Teaching Methods and Techniques

A teacher is said to have the most important job in the society; the job to shape and mold the future of the society – the children! Therefore, teachers need to focus on their job and turn up with best results.

Educating the children isn’t just about dumping loads of knowledge on them and pressurizing them to memorize the data but it is about actually teaching the children new stuff and making them learn the value of the material being taught to them. The children need to develop an understanding of the subject. And teachers are their guides on this track of life.

For this, there are many effective techniques and methods evaluated over the years. We’ll discuss the specific teaching methods here in this article.

Questioning: Asking questions and testing is undoubtedly the most effective and common way of teaching today. It enables the teacher to assess how much knowledge a student actually has about the subject and how much more needs t be imparted. When questions are asked related to everyday life, it makes the topic much more interesting. It is also responsible for making the class, somewhere or the other, more competitive in nature.

For example, if you’re teaching kids about polynomials, you can start by asking them how much they actually know about algebra or what are algebraic expressions.

Here, even the child is allowed to ask questions to the teacher. This lets the teacher know about the way of thinking of the student and the state of openness of his mind.

Explaining: Sometimes teachers go by introducing the topic and giving a proper summary on it. They share experiences and explain various factors of day to day life in a conversation form. If you are opting for this method, you need to make notes and make sure that your matter is related only to that particular age group. This method demands you to provide the class with examples on every subject or topic you discuss. It is a lively and traditional way of teaching.

For example, when teaching about various life processes, you can start by telling them what life processes are and then giving a short insight on how each one of them individually help the body function.

Modeling: Observing, retaining and replicating – these are the basis of this technique known as modeling or reinforced behavior. As we all know, visuals enable the human brain to retain information much more effectively and for a longer period of time, this proves to be an effective method. Here, various kinds of visuals and ‘models’ are used to demonstrate subjects and differences. It is generally accompanied by explanation.

For instance, if you are explaining closed and open circuit, you can ask the students to make a circuit model complete with a switch and ask them to observe how it works when the path is broken or complete.

It is also observed that students when taught using globes grasp much more than when taught using maps. A model of the earth helps students relate to real life positions and situation much better.

This is an especially effective medium in consideration to children as it prevents the things from going too dry.Selecting the right direction

Demonstrating: Demonstrating the subject is a step-by-step tutorial and very effective in clearing the concepts of the students. It develops an understanding of the process that is being taught right from the beginning till the end. Aids like practical equipments are a must for this technique. This method is not as effective for small children as it requires them to do first hand experimentation which might be difficult for them. But it is very valuable when dealing with older kids. Smart classes and computerized versions of teaching come under this.

Collaborating: “Collaborating” in modern world refers to team work. Dividing students into teams and giving instructions is beneficial in numerous ways. It makes the students aware of a sense of responsibility and team work. This direct instruction technique gives the students a stage to display their leadership qualities and their mental development level. They strive and come out with information helpful to obtain results. It is also a practice for dealing real life situations and overcoming petty distress. This technique spurts essential maturity development of the brain.

Reviewing: Reviewing or revising the material over and over with the class is always a good idea. This can be done in many ways. You can simply rehearse the material with the class. This can help you to tech forgotten material to the class and also clear doubts within the students.

You can elaborate topics while you are at it. For instance, you can ask the student to increase an answer of 20 words to that of 70 words by putting in their understanding and knowledge. This way you’ll get to know what exactly the child has grasped and how exactly he thinks about the phenomenon. You can even ask the students to do small projects on the things taught; like they could prepare charts, etc. Then it can even be used to ask children to merge previously learned information with the latest one and form suppositions. These pre – suppositions may or may not be correct, it’s your duty to correct them.

There are many more new techniques that have taken the place of old world, traditional ways. Role-play, field trips, computers, brainstorming, case studies are slowly emerging too. They are simple to follow and provide efficient results.

No matter what your technique is, remember writing lesson plans and preparing yourself before facing the children. While opting for a teaching method, keep in mind the age group you are dealing with and the topic.

All in all, don’t forget to be comfortable yourself with the topic. Provide the class with a light environment that makes teaching fun and fruitful for both, you and the students. Let the children express their own views. Encourage them to come up with doubts.

And always, always believe in them and I’m sure you’ll excel in your task of educating the children.

Getting your General Education Development Certificate (GED)

GED is a test that results in you acquiring a General Education Development certification. This is a certificate for those who were unable to complete their high school due to some reason but still want to pursue their higher studies. This certification is equal to a high school certificate in value.Retention_Programs_Improve_Graduation_Rates-hero

A high school certificate is a necessity to get a basic job or admission in a college. If you have a specific purpose for getting this certification, make sure the college or company in your mind accepts this in place of a high school certificate. Or else, all your hard work would be down the drain.

To be frank, it is not a very easy task to acquire this certificate. But if you really have the spirit and are willing to do it then you can and will be able to get it! Now about how to get your GED, we’ll have a look into the matter.

Eligibility: if you are a high school dropout you can apply for it. In addition, you have age bars too. But they differ according to the state rules. Some states have it as 18 whereas some as 16, you can inquire about it at the Department of Education of your state.

Preparation: Firstly you need to know what to expect. You are assessed on five main subjects. They are:

  1. Language Arts (Writing): This comprises two parts; English Language and essay writing.
  2. Language Arts (Reading): This comprises five parts; poetry, drama, fiction, non-fiction and work place documents.
  3. Social Science: This consist history, geography, civics and economics.
  4. Science: Physical science, life science and earth and space science are included under this.
  5. Mathematics: here you have to be ready with numeric operations, geometry, statistics and data analysis, and algebra.

There are numerous institutions that provide preparatory classes for GED. Even online courses are available for the benefit of those unable to find proper classes in their vicinity. But while filling up be sure to check if the institution is accredited. There are as many bogus classes out there as there are original. You can even opt for self studies but one has to be really determined before taking up that decision. It is hard to be followed later on. So it is advisable that you take up courses.

No matter what means of preparation, remember to solve ample of sample papers before going in for the real thing. Be thorough with question papers so as to you know what to expect actually!

Marking scheme

Each section contains 800 marks. You must get a minimum f 450 marks in each subject to clear. An average score in GED is 500 points in each subject…that’s a total of 2500 points; before going in for that mindset; find out the minimum requirements of marks in the firm or college you are planning to apply later on.


Let me state here clearly: GED tests are not taken online. You have to go in person and give the test. If you find sites acclaiming they provide online GED facilities, their authenticity is questionable. The diploma provided can very well be bogus. So before you sit to fill the entry form for a centre or website, be sure to go through their legitimacy.


It totally depends on your centre. Some charge no fees at all whereas some charge from USD 50 TO USD 100. These rates are exclusive of the charges incurred during preparations.

It takes you at least six months of preparation. The test is of seven hours and five minutes, all the five subjects included. Some centers hold it in one go whereas some conduct it in several sittings. The arrival of results and the certificate may take a few weeks.

You should keep in mind that you’ll be able to pass only if you yourself have the fortitude and are focused. It is not an easy task. A census proves that only 30% students have been able to clear it in the first attempt.

Just relax, free your mind, strengthen your will and surge in to start preparing. Your career lies in your hands. Go for it and grab your future!

All the best!

Learning Grammar – What Is an Antecedent?

To begin with, an antecedent is a word or phrase that a pronoun refers to.

‘Ante’ is a prefix that means going before other things, for instance, ‘ante mortem’ means before death. This implies, ‘antecedent’ come before something, but what? Well, antecedents appear before the pronouns that refer to them. For better understanding, let’s take a look at a sentence.

If pastries are available, be sure to order it.

In the sentence above, ‘it’ refers to ‘pastries’, i.e. the pronoun refers to a noun. So here, ‘pastries’ is the antecedent that the pronoun ‘it’ refers to.

So hereby it is clear that antecedents will always appear before the pronoun. But then there are sentences like ‘when you see him, please tell David that I’ll be late’. What to make of these? As a writer, you should be careful of your usage of pronouns. Using ‘him’ before the antecedent ‘professor’ will cause the readers to be in the dark about who ‘him’ refers to until the second half of the sentence. This is highly undesirable as it makes the reading experience dull and complex.

In the sentence, ‘Breath in through your nose, hold it for a second, then breath out through your mouth’, the audience understands that they have to breathe through their nose, then hold their nose, and finally breathe out – which no doubt is ridiculously crazy! This happens because ‘it’ refers to nose as it is the nearest noun. This confusion may change meanings and turn your nose down. So you must be careful in the usage and avoid misplacement or faraway placement of pronouns and antecedents.

Now have a look at this outrageous sentence, ‘The cake consisted of cranberries, strawberries, kiwis, blueberries and a cherry on top. It was white in color.’ Now that is a ridiculous cherry, white in color! This one is a case of ambiguous antecedents. Here, the readers would naturally pair ‘it’ with the nearest noun ‘cherry’. To avoid this, the sentence can be combined as in ‘The cake, white in color, consisted of cranberries, kiwis, blueberries and a cherry on top.’ Easy and clear!  O one needs to avoid the use of ambiguous antecedents!

Examples of Antecedents

Nina called to say that she will arrive at eight.
Antecedent: Nina
Pronoun: she

The boy who lives next door found his bicycle.
Antecedent: boy
Pronoun: his

The girl who sang the song is tired.
Antecedent: girl
: who

Learning English Basic Grammar – what Is Grammar?

Expressing ourselves effectively to the second person is the key to successful communication. Whether it’s verbal or written, in French or English, it is very important to follow the set of rules pertaining to the particular language. One must be aware of the syntax of the language get one’s thoughts across effectively and efficiently and grammar is exactly what is meant for this purpose!

Echoing David Crystal, “Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English. And it can help everyone–not only teachers of English, but teachers of anything, for all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning.”

Grammar in olden days was a glamorous subject or so is pertained by the fact that people in Scotland pronounced grammar like ‘glamour’ and associated it with enchantments and wonderful magic. Though, today the situation is such that grammar is a phobia for many students and not at all glamorous for anyone whatsoever.

Types of grammar

Grammar is divided into two broad categories for better usage: Descriptive and Prescriptive grammar.

Descriptive grammar is the actual study and understanding of a subject and is the way it is spoken and written.

Prescriptive grammar is a set of rules as aids of learning that language and refers to the language as certain people think it should be.

This was just the beginning. Furthermore, grammar has ten types.

Comparative grammar: This refers to the study and comparison of structures of linked languages. As R. Freidin puts it as, “a faculty of language that provides an explanatory basis for how a human being can acquire a first language . . . In this way, the theory of grammar is a theory of human language and hence establishes the relationship among all languages”.

Generative Grammar: This refers to the set of rules that the speaker accepts as belonging to the language originally. In other words, it is the speaker’s inbuilt or rather subconscious ability of producing utterances in a particular language using pre requisite knowledge.

Mental Grammar: This kind of grammar is right there in the brain and persists within all humans. It is the generative grammar that helps formulate sentences that makes sense and carries your thoughts and ideas to other human beings.

Pedagogical Grammar: These are the set of rules designed for students who have the language as their second language, if you get what I mean. As D. Little said about perspectives of this, “Pedagogical grammar is a slippery concept. The term is commonly used to denote (1) pedagogical process–the explicit treatment of elements of the target language systems as (part of) language teaching methodology; (2) pedagogical content–reference sources of one kind or another that present information about the target language system; and (3) combinations of process and content.”

Performance Grammar: This is a description of the set of rules of English in a way that is used by dialogue speakers. This deals with the production of the language. The beauty or sharpness of the language is altered properly if you refer to this syntax.

Reference Grammar: This gives explanations and directions about construction of words, sentences, phrases, clauses, etc. How they are formed and their types are included. Modern reference Grammar books include A comprehensive grammar of the English language by Randolph Quirk.

Theoretical Grammar: This is the study of the vital aspects of any language spoken by humans. This is concerned with clearing the rules of the language and displaying them to all.

Traditional Grammar: This is a kind of perceptual language. It creates distinction between what people are doing with the language and what they should be doing instead. It models historically pure grammar.

Transformational Grammar: This kind of grammar can be referred to as a set of unwritten laws or something alike. These are not pre defined rules but something that are kept in mind while interpreting.

Universal Grammar: This initially organizes the state f mind of the language learner, i.e. organizes human faculty.