She pulled the knife from her chest and smiled, “Was that supposed to hurt?” Every person in the room gasped as she stood there, the bloody knife in her hand, completely unaffected, her smile broadening by the second. It took two minutes for her to realize what had happened. An agonizing sting ran down her body, a sting called regret? With a frown, her fingers wandered to her chest, her eyes focused on the pool of blood at her feet. Her body felt weak. She fell on her knees, her legs unable to handle her weight. What did she just do? Slowly, she closed her eyes, only to open them again with a jolt.

This time, with a jerk of her head she pointed at her now dead daughter and said, “Another bitch down.”


Roots of Opera – Glimpse

A mesmerizing art of combining text and music in a theatrical setting is known as opera! Italian in origin, it has undergone several reforms and through several societies before westernizing in the way we know it today. The epigrammatic information given here may not swivel the intricate veins of opera but it surely covers up the main points…

Inspired by the elite circle of Florentine humanists, Jacopo Peri created Dafne – one of the earliest opera compositions to be known. Unfortunately, this orchestration consisting harpsichord, a lute, a viol, a triple flute and an arch lute is not reserved and is untraceable still. Peri’s another composition – Euridice- is alive today and is one of the most ancient compositions to be known.images (12)

It was not until 1637 that opera ventured out of the courts and amongst the common masses. It started gaining popularity and facing inevitable reforms according to different cultures and styles. But this was met by rivalry from people who thought that this reformation would cause opera to lose its originality and its classic elite purity.

In the 19th century, the bel canto movement, literally meaning beautiful singing, popularized giving rise to intricate Italian singing with requirements of high agility and pitch control. Example of this is Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor.

Then, a new patriotic icon Giuseppe Verdi came along with his more direct, biblical Nabucco. One of his greatest compositions were Grand Opera, Don Carlos and Falstaff inspired from Shakespearean literature. Italian opera started popularizing on international soil after the more realistic compositions of Pietro Mascagni.

Italian opera also influenced the Germans. Though, some of them came about with native styles and original ideas. Richard Wagner, a German composer, conductor and theatre director, had to face many controversies before emerging as one of the most prominent opera composers.

Thomas Arne’s experimentation with comic opera turned into a huge success. His English-language operas and Artaxerxes earned fame during 1762. George Frideric Handel, a German followed by American Leonard Bernstein, George Gershwin and Douglas Moore were great contributors to the English opera. Beethoven and Mozart are still remarked.

Russia welcomed opera in the 1730s with Tsefal i Pokris being the first Russian opera – a seria in three acts- written by Italian Francesco Araia. Mikhail Ginka is the first Russian composer and foreigners like Domenico Cimarosa, Baldassare Galunni and others came to Russia to compose new operas.

In France, Jean-Baptiste Lully revolted against the traditional Italian opera being accepted in France establishing a separate tradition. Founder of the Academy of Music, Lully was followed by Jean-Philippe Rameau and Jacques Offenbach.

Facing these auras of times, it has westernized to a certain extent becoming popular amongst many people today. It has far reaching affects with a huge audience around the globe. Opera has developed its own style on every soil but the main theme remains the same being projection of pleasure through music and drama in an artistic way to engross the audience in a good way!

Drama and its types

What is drama?

Drama is a very fascinating and majestic act captivating the audience in the fiction being represented. It is derived from a Greek word meaning “action”. It is generally enacted by professional theater artists. It is symbolized using two masks, namely Thalia (the happy face) and Melpomene (the weeping face), Greek Muses.

Its origin lies in the historical Greece and Athens. Roman drama followed Athenian drama on the path of fame along with Medieval, Elizabethan and Jacobean, modern and postmodern drama. India, China and Japan never lagged and produced their own versions of folk tales in the form of drama.

Hereby we are going to explore the different types of drama defined by professionals and the forms of drama evaqluated over the years.

What are the components of drama?

There are a few aspects common to every drama and they are known as the components of a drama. The components of drama are; theme, plot, audio-visual effects and music.

What are the forms of drama?

The forms of drama are as follows:

Opera: This versatile form arose during the Renaissance period. It is a combination of music and drama where the actors display exceptional acting and singing skills.

Pantomime: This kind of drama has fold tales as their base. Presented in the form of masque presentation, they generally portray the victory of good over evil. These have general focus on moral values and are appealing.

Creative Drama: This is the latest version of drama used in educational institutions have children as the means of expression. It has its roots in the United States and is known to be founded by Winfred Ward.

What are the types of drama?

Based on rudiments and the social thinking the following are the types of drama:

Musical: It is a sensuous type of drama also known as opera. Music, singing and dancing play an important role here. The story flows along with melodious tuning provided by the onstage orchestra.

Comedy: This real life based drama is known to be humorous. The story depicts some funny incidences or anecdotes and can be coarse and sarcastic too. One needs explicit talent to write comedy plots as to provoke laughter is a gift of god.

Farce: It is said to be a subgroup of the comedy. But it is not as popular as comedy as it involves exaggerated characters and plots that are too imaginative or rather unimaginative. This can sometimes be annoyingly too much for the audience to bear.

Tragedy: Depletion of human race, decline of a dynasty, war losses, betrayals, harm to morals, etc are generally topics around which a tragedy revolves. It is a touchy display of emotions that can move the audience provided it is plotted properly.

Melodrama: Melodrama tries to appeal its audience by the amplification of emotions. It can engross the audience completely if portrayed properly, but it can make it a flop show if it generates an aura of monotony.

Fantasy: It is a work of fiction where the boundaries created by the reality are crossed. Super heroes are a significant part of it. They possess powers that are fantastic and are generally appealing to the children. The modern technological advancements have intensified the effects created, adding an element of originality.

The above mentioned types are the major forms and types of drama. As we know, drama is a form of art that never does with lack of creativity. New genres of drama are sighted, but the majors are aforementioned. The advancements in the field of technology do provide competition to drama shown in theaters using live actors, but the craze is still there among the masses to view it!